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Journal of superhard materials
Instrumentalny Svit

Chapter 1

Prehistory of the Institutes birth

 

   ..
Bakul (1908–1978 .).
All on the Earth has its history and prehistory, and also origins. And, untwisting the fanciful connection of events, we, as a rule, want to find that combination of dates, operations of individual persons, facts, which have served as the beginning of birth of new quality new production interesting for us of discovery. The sequence of events can be presented as climbing on a ladder, if you already have gone; you go up to a site, up to a crossroad. And by achieving it, you open to yourself a new march of a ladder.
Exactly this site, crossroad, summing up the turns of years, for the ISM is the 50-year's anniversary - half-hundred years, which have contained epoch of prompt break of science and engineering of second half of the century in coping by the man of atom, space and computer science, in scientific creativity, in discovery of enormous possibilities of industrial realization of accumulated knowledges and engineering..
Point of origin count of the institutes history is 1961. But this has preceded signed events, which it is necessary to recollect. Without this prehistory will be vague, how the institute arisen, became necessary to a huge country, won respect in the world. You see ISM was created by the country government for a solution of a concrete problem of rise of progress rates of mechanical engineering, maintenance of technological development of nuclear industry, space industry, solidifying defense potential of country. Hundreds people - state and party figures, scientific, engineers and workers were involved in this work. In this creation there was also burning of passions, passion of a pathfinder and much other.
For understanding regularity of origin of institute it is necessary to recollect atmosphere of the first third of the last century, to see and to realize significance of eligibility scientific engineering of knowledges, rushing of the workers - manufacturers to create new tools, to learn their technical abilities.
The sources of development of operations leading to formation of ISM, are in the far the 30-th of the last century. It was time of a beginning of industrialization and technical reequipment of industry of the young Soviet state. Country after successful fulfillment of the first five-year plan (1928-1932) entered into the second. The development of the industry passed under the slogan: to squeeze out from the equipment maxima possible. The equipment in main was foreign, though production by domestic enterprises began it.
For effective production there was an acute need for new tools and technologies. The best tool materials were tool from steel tungsten hard alloys. They have played in many years a base role in creation of instrument of high pressure for synthesis of diamonds. Moreover, without the invention and development of production of hard alloys this synthesis would be impossible.
"Ukrtverdosplav" was unique in the USSR by specialized organization occupied with designing and introduction in the industry of the mountain hard-alloy tool. During its existence he conducts large research work and a lot of new constructions of the tool for various industries, and first of all, for black, color metallurgy, coal industry, production and processing of a stone is created.
In the beginning of the 60-th the Soviet Soyuz had an acute necessity in the diamond tool for industrial branches. The volumes of production of natural technical diamonds in recently open diamond handsets of Yakutia did not satisfy the needs of a national economy. Subdivision and classification of natural diamond powders realized only at one Leningrad abrasive factory, that is the industrial diamonds were in a large deficit. The received powders (plate, acute-angled especially rigid particles) were not really suitable for use in abrasive materials. The withdrawal from this position was found per 50 years of the last century, when centuries-old dream and the attempts of the scientists to uncover the secret of deriving of diamonds, at last, have crowned by success. It has taken place almost simultaneously in scientific and technical laboratories of different countries - Sweden, USA, USSR. The works were strictly secret.
In the same time in the Moscow institute of physics of high pressure of the Academy of sciences of USSR under the direction of the director of institute of the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, the professor L.F. Vereshagin in April, 1960 irrespective of the foreign scientists have received the first samples of the Soviet synthetic diamonds, that was authentic confirmed by x-ray researches of the exemplar. It happened in strictly confidential circumstances. The results have been reported to the government of the country. The achievement was disclosed on the plenary CPSU Central Committee in the summer 1960. Huge work on finishing a laboratory method of synthesis of diamond up to their industrial issue ahead was coming.
The successful creative union of Moscow L.F. Vershagin scientific group and Kiev experts hard alloy boys from the group of V.N. Bakul was established. The important pitch from laboratory up to industrial scales of application of unique technologies of extremely high pressure and temperatures was made.
The first consignment of diamonds synthesized by industrial method, in Kiev in ISM was manufactured in October, 1961 in volume of 2 thousands of carats (400 g), what was mentioned in the official report to address taking place at this time of congress CPSU. The first page of the Pravda newspaper for October 24, 1961 was opened by the full text of this official report of ISM. It spoke about huge significance for the country of joint achievement of the Kiev and Moscow experts and scientists, national recognizing of the important industrial diamond break of country on a world scientific and technical level.

 

Main page

SCIENTIFIC RESULTS
Opening address of the director of V.N. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials NAS Ukraine
50 YEARS ISM
The chronicle of major events of V.N. Bakul ISM and Diamond Concern"ALKON"
Chapter 1 Prehistory of the Institutes birth
Chapter 2 The BEGINNING of the DIAMOND WAY (1961-1970)
Chapter 3 EXPANSION AND DEEPENING OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY (1971-1980)
Chapter 4 ACTIVITY of LABORATORIES and DEPARTMENTS
Chapter 5 Development of research work of the Institute for industrial progress (1981-1990)
Chapter 6 On a fracture of epoch (1991-2000)
Chapter 7 Innovative investment development (2001-2010)
Chapter 8 The scientific and technical cooperation, informational and advertising activity
Chapter 9 SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL
Section 10 PUBLIC TRADITIONS FOR 50 YEARS
THE FACTS AND FIGURES OF ISMs HISTORY (1961-2011)

V.Bakul Institute for Superhard materials NASU UKRAINE, 2, Avtozavodskaya Str., Kiev, 04074 Tel/fax (+38 044) 468-86-32; 468-86-25
www.ism.kiev.ua -mail: alcon@ism.kiev.ua