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Chapter 6

On a fracture of epoch (1991-2000)

90 are years of crucial changes in life of Ukraine and in life of the Institute. The breakdown of the Soviet Union, modification of the social system- all this was reflected in work of the collective.
. Вставки для буровых инструментов из алмазно-твердосплавного композита «Славутич»,  защищенного 41 патентом в 16 странах мира
Вставки для буровых инструментов из алмазно-твердосплавного композита «Славутич», защищенного 41 патентом в 16 странах мира.
The institute was formed on numerous directive solutions for work on the requests of the enterprises of all large country. More than 10 thousands of organizations, plants, factories of the Soviet Union received and regularly used the diamond tool and abrasive grinding -, micro and submicropowders made by experimental factory of the ISM and six other large factories in the country, working on technologies transferred, implemented by hands and forcefulness of the employees of the Bakul collective. It was calculated, that the actual economic benefit of application by the enterprises of the country of development of the institute has made to 1990 more than one billion of roubles. And the investments on creation of the institute in the 60 were estimated by the sum in 50 millions roubles from the national budget of Ukraine. It is a magnificent example of reasonable innovative investment solution of governmental importance. The diamond industry of the country made so much domestic production, how many all countries of the world taken together, and its import to the enterprises of the country was not necessary.
The scheduled centralized socialist economy granted leading physical technical, chemical academic institutes of Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia a privileged position of beacons of progress, directed their work on solidifying industrial and defensive power of a great State. State financing and administrative support ensured the possibility of overcoming of current difficulties in payment of transactions, in logistics for fulfillment as scientific researches, and in practical realization of their outcomes. Company and the industrial enterprises by a force way overcame always existing in that system "immunity" to new engineering. For this purpose the state selected significant means.
It is necessary to mark, that the development for the industry were executed, that is named, "from scratch", as the world market of the investments was for the country practically closed. The echo of cold war, tough competitiveness - these and many other moments hindered the entry of the country on the world market on equal terms.
The forming of a new type of relations - market - was negatively reflected in activity of leading scientific and technical industrial complexes of Ukraine. The need for new equipment, especially domestic was sharply reduced. Unreceptiveness began to win. In many cases it is connected to reduction of total volumes of production, liquidation or change the line of business of the enterprises, vanishing of common economy. The reliable sources of financing of scientific and technical development have disappeared - large mechanical engineering, were reduced nuclear and space branch, the domestic oil extraction conceded to the import. It sharply has limited financial support of scientific collectives who worked for technical progress. On the market of Ukraine has rushed the stream of import engineering, tools and equipment, and sometimes with poor quality, but in attractive packing and with powerful encouragement. Research institutes of physical technical structure had lack of turnaround and capital means for creation of developments, practically had full absence of new kinds of equipment. Was financed and is financed now only the salary on 80-85%. The state and industry of Ukraine have ceased to be the customers of many kinds of high technology products.
In the beginning of the 90-th in the scientific and technical complex ISM NAS of Ukraine the new forms of researches organization and maintenance of production, development of methods of application of tools and items from SHM, assisting to collective developed to adapt for the conditions of the combined market relations. The accent was made on development and realization of large projects on assimilation of new technologies and escalating of production of high technology products both in departments of a complex, and by probable creation of market type enterprises - combining possibilities of the material basis and other organizations.
Долота для сверхглубокого бурения нефтяных и газовых скважин. Были использованы  для бурения  рекордной по глубине (12 км) скважины на  Кольском полуострове.
Долота для сверхглубокого бурения нефтяных и газовых скважин. Были использованы для бурения рекордной по глубине (12 км) скважины на Кольском полуострове.
Actually at the institute were generated two faces - one scientific - reconnaissance to form scientific outcomes of fundamental, applied and retrieval character. For a basis here was budget financing and nonprofit form of economic activity of the institute. Other – manufacture - commercial activity with production and selling of actual production - tools, materials, items, and also core and social services. The work here was conducted on market bases of managing and with a task of profitable, power efficient, material saving and economically reasonable activity..
Each year brought the collective new tests - to the end of the decade the institute reformed its structure, by disbanding some departments, which had not financing, has gone through large losses - the buildings of polyclinic and shop - pass-through, the ship "Diamond" were sold, the pilot factory has become bankrupt, the Special design-technology office, which has stayed without financing, with experimental production was liquidated.
In this very complicated and difficult for Ukraine, as young state, and its citizens decade the institute adequately continued to work on studying of properties and application of new superhard and ceramic materials, hard alloys. The changed state system has caused necessity of reorganization of activity of collective with accent on the needs of national industrial development of Ukraine - the industrial development of the country is impossible without use of high science intensive technologies..
By turn, the development of these technologies is determined by a solution of the problem of production creation and saturation of the market by effective tools, which are the main working part (element) by machining.
The institute not only saved many high effective developments of the last years, but also enriched material science by new achievements in understanding the nature of influence of high pressure on substance, has created gamut of modern tools and technologies, which application is directed on development of commercial production in Ukraine, creation of competitive machines and technical systems of a world level. The institute is an active participant of European and world scientific space, important center of development of researches and designing in the area of extremely high pressures and temperatures, material science superhard, smart- and structured composites, functional ceramics.

Main page

Opening address of the director of V.N. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials NAS Ukraine
The chronicle of major events of V.N. Bakul ISM and Diamond Concern"ALKON"
Chapter 1 Prehistory of the Institute’s birth
Chapter 2 The BEGINNING of the DIAMOND WAY (1961-1970)
Chapter 5 Development of research work of the Institute for industrial progress (1981-1990)
Chapter 6 On a fracture of epoch (1991-2000)
Chapter 7 Innovative investment development (2001-2010)
Chapter 8 The scientific and technical cooperation, informational and advertising activity

V.Bakul Institute for Superhard materials NASU UKRAINE, 2, Avtozavodskaya Str., Kiev, 04074 Tel/fax (+38 044) 468-86-32; 468-86-25 Е-mail: